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                首頁 > 文學茶座 > 反復行走于工廠路 ——淺談非虛構寫作中的“觀察”和“真實”
                • 反復行走于工廠路 ——淺談非虛構寫作中的“觀察”和“真實”
                • 任何創作都離不開觀察,而非虛構類紀實作品對觀察的要求更為嚴苛。
                  在我看來,“觀察”是必需的,必要的,簡直是萬分重要的。生活是一個無限敞開的容器,真正和它面對面時,會比自己想象時豐富一千倍。只有近距離地觀察,長時間地觀察,才能讓那個被描述的對象帶著內在的、獨一無二的特點活起來;也只有在感覺細節和直覺認識達到豐富和飽滿的狀態下,作家筆下的文本才不會凌空蹈虛,才有溫度,才有可觸感。
                  寫作不僅僅是用文字表達思想,更是不自覺地利用記憶力和想象力,創作出發人深省、獨具特色的文章。記憶力是一種物理碎片,而想象力只有穿過具體事物的軀殼,才能生出翅膀,飛升起來。想象力只能由最基本的具體事物引領著,進入到更為廣闊的冥想空間,否則空對空地想象,會匱乏感染力和說服力,也無法讓讀者刻骨銘心。故而,在進行紀實作品的創作之前,作家要像地質隊員那樣,對所要描述的那個地區(那些人、那件事)進行全方位地勘探式觀察,之后,再將這些觀察記憶進行整理,由此生發出意義。
                  2013 年,當我的非虛構作品《工廠女孩》出版后,我開始籌劃《工廠男孩》。但這一次,我想寫得和此前作品有所不同。在研讀了大量紀實類作品后,我發現觀察方式的不同,會導致文本的完全不同。以往人們習慣于的那種觀察方式,我戲稱為“緯線式”——在一個相對一致的時間點上,通過作家本人的移動,分別擷取不同地點所發生的不同故事,再將其連綴而成。這種寫作的核心是根據多個事實來詮釋一個中心。這種寫作勢必會導致在寫作之前便要確定下中心,再根據中心議題來選擇“相配的”材料。這種辦法堪稱“短、平、快”,很容易出活兒,但也很容易讓作品流于表面,因為中心一旦確定,就很容易讓作家在觀察時主觀性地簡化生活,而只挑選對自己有用的材料。
                  我試圖用“經線式”的方法來觀察——尋找一個固定的地點,以時間為豎軸來展開觀察,反復目睹依附于那個點上的種種事物,先記錄下來,再慢慢篩選。“經線式”和“緯線式”的最大不同,是“經線式”呈現出的變化帶有很強的不規則性和不可預見性,因為它的主題從一開始就不是清晰的,確鑿無疑的,但又因為時間足夠充沛,最終呈現出的那些事物發展的軌跡,會自然形成某種意義(比事先預定的要更復雜更多樣)。
                  我選定東莞樟木頭鎮的工廠路作為觀察對象后,便搬進電子廠女工宿舍,夜晚去男工宿舍采訪,白天反復行走于街道。從2014 年年初春節后電子廠放鞭炮開工,到2015 年年底春節前工人們買火車票準備回家,整整兩年,我在工廠路耗盡了我的周末和假期。兩個春夏秋冬讓我經歷了各種古怪境遇:暗黑夜道、超級暴雨、驕陽下的悶熱、凌晨大王椰旁的星星。這條路經過時間的打磨,已在我的瞳孔中變得腴軟。穿行其中,我不再是陌生人,也不再是偶爾的觀察者,甚至已是這路上確鑿的一分子。這種“觀察行動”看似非常簡單,卻令我為之亢奮著迷,因為我并不知道我要找什么,而我又確信,只要我去找,變化一定藏在各個細節中。
                  想寫出一部好作品,僅和采訪對象只有一兩次謀面是不夠的,因為在很大程度上,紀實作品是一種對印象的確認,所以,作家在觀察時要對細節格外留意。如果作家的野心更大,希望自己的作品更富深度和個性化,那就必須尋找到那些實際存在,但乍看起來是不合理的,甚至有些古怪的細節。然而,即便是具備超強觀察能力的作家,短時間內的記憶都是有限的。
                  于是,這種貌似笨拙的“經線式”辦法便成了最有效的辦法——將時間拉長,再拉長,拉到足夠長,讓作家在一個相對充裕的范圍內,反復觀察一個點;讓作家像攝影師般,通過近景、中景、遠景等不同角度的考量,通過對整個場域的顏色、光感、聲響的考量,通過對人物和人物之間內在關系的考量,塑造出一幅鮮活的立體畫。寫作的過程就是整理細節的過程,通過思考來慢慢品咂,分類,最終用一個豹紋的斑點來映射豹子的全貌。
                  細節的獲得可以通過反復觀察照片或錄像,但如果作家有足夠耐心,在不同時間段,用自己的眼睛去觀察固定的采訪對象,他會驚詫地發現,流逝的時間像雨水,將很多事物外在的灰塵洗凈,而讓它的輪廓完整顯現。通過兩年的反復行走和浸淫,我對工廠路的坑洼路面、街邊路燈、大排檔的主人們、小賓館的二手房東皆了如指掌,對男工們的內心世界基本洞悉,對和男工息息相關的女工也不忘觀察,于是,一個網絡狀的環形世界便形成了:人物和人物,人物和環境在相互制衡中發生著改變,而這些改變非常之重要,因為這些改變就是當下中國巨變的縮影。
                  當我反復行走工廠路時,通過和一個四歲小男孩的聊天,發現電子廠大門口的商販之間,基本都是親屬關系;又發現整條街上布滿了老鄉關系。廠內和廠外的上班與休息時間,是鑲嵌式的。有的人原來是工人,后來變成了小販。小販們之間也有非常銳利的傾軋和角逐。為爭奪地盤,他們會吵架(吵不過時還會請老鄉幫忙)、打架(廠里男工宿舍里經常能查出刀具),而二手房東非常世故,看到那種暴烈脾氣的男人來租房,便一概以“無房”拒絕,省得惹上禍端。
                  要在世俗中看到卓越不凡,既需要長時間,也需要極度專注。我的方法是:隨身帶著筆記本,看到有意思的細節就記錄下來;長時間保持一個人的狀態;觀察時沉默不語,慢慢用視線掠過;從細微處入手,再縱觀全局。如果只是像照相般“咔嚓”了一眼,我們也能攝取到輪廓、顏色和曲線,但并不知曉碎片和碎片之間的內在聯系,在創作時,尤其是在需要遴選“有效細節”時,會變得力不從心。通過反復觀察,我不斷發現新的信息資源,雖然有些信息看起來互相矛盾,但通過宏觀俯視,還是會發現那種變化以螺旋式方式趨近一個事實。
                  觀察絕不是照相機的簡單復制,創作也不是對現實生活場景的摹寫和照搬。當作家在進行反復觀察時,眼睛像一塊透視鏡片,充滿了作家自己的個性;而當他試圖用文字來轉述那些記憶碎片時,他會通過思考,將最具說服力的那個細節描述出來。所以,創作貌似是作家在書寫自己觀察到的記憶,但其實,作家所寫下來的,是經過他主觀大腦過濾后的記憶。面對滿坑滿谷的細節碎片,作家如何發現、質疑、品味這些原材料,這是整個寫作過程中最為重要的步驟,簡直就是“畫龍點睛”。這個重新組裝的過程,考驗著作家的知識儲備和藝術感受力。最終,作家借助自己在生活現場觀察到的細節,向讀者揭示出一個全新的畫面,全新的世界。
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